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The heresiographers, indeed, ascribe a prominent role to this enigmatic personality for introducing some key doctrines into Kaysani thought, including the pre-existence of souls as shadows azilla , the transmigration of souls tanasukh al-arwah and a cyclical history of eras adwar and aeons akwar. Some of the ideas of the Harbiyya-janahiyya were adopted by other early Shi'ite ghulat groups, and they were also expounded by some of the Khuramiyya groups.

In the meantime, the main faction of the Hashimiyya had recognised the 'Abbasid Muhammad b. They held that Abu Hashim had personally bequeathed his rights to the Imamate to this 'Abbasid relative. In this way, the Abbasids inherited the party and the propaganda organisation of the Hashimiyya, which became the main instrument of the 'Abbasid movement, and eventually of the overthrow of the Umayyads.

The Hashimiyya-'Abbasiyya party, too, influenced the syncretic doctrines of the Iranian Khurramiyya, while the murder of Abu Muslim in sparked off a long period of insurrectional activity by a host of Khurrami groups in Transoxania, Khurasan and other Iranian Lands. Heterodox Muslim and neo-Mazdakite movements: al-Muqanna', Babak, and others. A few obscure sectarian movements, with possible Khurramiyya connections, sprang up in Khurasan in the milieu of the early 'Abbasid da'wa missionary movement during the final decades of the Umayyad period.

Around a da'i propagandist named 'Ammar b. Yazid and nicknamed Khidash was sent to Nishapur and Merv to head a new 'Abbasid da'wa organisation in Khurasan. Khidash expounded extremist doctrines and was eventually repudiated by the 'Abbasid Imam, Muhammad b. However, Khidash had acquired followers of his own, known as the Khidashiyya, who held that the Imamate had passed to him from the time of his repudiation by the Abbasids; they also denied Khidash's death.

Some heresiographers report that Khidash taught the doctrines of the Khurramiyya and also permitted promiscuity; and they, in fact, identify the Khidashiyya with the Khurramiyya of Khurasan. There also appeared at this time the movement of Bihafarid the Magian , who was a native of Zuzan and had a Zoroastrian background.

Setting himself up, possibly as a new prophet, at Khwaf to the south of Nishapur, Bihafarid rejected many of the practices of his contemporary Zoroastrians and preached syncretistic doctrines based on a type of 'reformed' Zoroastrianism and on certain aspects of Islam. He also revived Persian, and the sources attribute a book to him written in that language.

His ideas and social programmes proved attractive to the peasantry, who rallied to his side, enabling Bihafarid to launch a revolt around in northern Khurasan. Bihafarid's innovative ideas soon became intolerable to the leaders of the traditional Zoroastrian establishment, who complained about his heresy to Abu Muslim.

They emphasised that Bihafarid was destroying both Zoroastrianism and Islam. Abu Muslim had Bihafarid captured in the mountains of Badhghis and brought to Nishapur, where he and many of his followers, known as the Bihafaridiyya, were put to death in However, the Bihafaridiyya, who continued to expect Bihafarid's return, survived in Khurasan until at least the end of the tenth century. It was Abu Muslim al-Khurasani himself who had the greatest influence on a number of sects and their rebellions in the Persian lands which can be designated specifically as Khurramiyya or Khurramdiniyya.

It did not take the Abbasids long after their victory to disclaim all connections with their Shi'ite and extremist Kaysani Hashimiyya-'Abbasiyya antecedents. Indeed, soon after establishing their own caliphate in , the Abbasids became upholders of Sunni orthodoxy, persecuting the Shi'ites and their 'Alid leaders. They also turned against those da'is and revolutionary commanders who had brought them to power, including especially Abu Muslim, the founder of the Khurasanian army and the chief architect of the 'Abbasid victory.

The treacherous murder of Abu Muslim in , on the orders of the caliph al-Mansur, provided a unique impetus for the religio-political activities of a number of syncretic Khurrami sects. Many aspects of these Khurrami sects and their rebellious activities, which unfolded during early 'Abbasid times in many parts of the Persian lands and in Transoxania, remain shrouded in obscurity. However, modern scholarship has generally corroborated the mediaeval Muslim authors' identification of the Khurramiyya of early Islamic times with the neo-Mazdakites - these were the remnants of the earlier Mazdakiyya who had supported the socio-religious revolutionary movement of Mazdak for reforming Zoroastrianism in Sasanian Iran during the reign of Kavad By early 'Abbasid times, there were still many Zoroastrian and neo-Mazdakite communities scattered throughout many parts of Central Asia and the Iranian lands, especially in the inaccessible mountain regions and the countryside of Khurasan, Tabaristan and Azerbaijan.

A common feature of these dissident religious groups, comprised mainly of the peasantry and the lower social strata, was their anti-Arab feeling of Iranian 'national' sentiment. Thus they provided a suitable recruiting ground for all types of popular protest movements; and they were particularly recruited into the conglomeration of religio-political sects known as the Khurramiyya.

The Khurrami groups were also receptive to syncretistic influences; and, in Islamic Iran and Central Asia, they were especially influenced by certain extremist and messianic doctrines caught by the Shi'ite ghulat belonging to the Harbiyya-janahiyya and Hashimiyya-'Abbasiyya parties of the Kaysaniyya.

As a result, Islamic teachings of an extremist nature came to be fused with Iranian dualistic traditions and anti-Arab motifs, giving the Khurramiyya sectarian movement its distinctive Irano-Islamic syncretic nature. The protests of the Khurrami groups, which resisted assimilation into Sunni Islam, were also rooted in conflicts of class interests and in economic difficulties.

The sectarians had particular grievances against the existing tax system, especially the assessment and collection of land taxes, as well as the local landowning class of dihqans who had assimilated more readily into the emerging Arabo-Islamic socio-economic system of the caliphate and often shared many of the privileges of the ruling class.

The widest allegiance among the neo-Mazdakite Khurrami communities of the Iranian lands and Transoxania was gained by Abu Muslim. He acquired followers of his own, known as the Abu Muslimiyya or Muslimiyya, who split into several groups over time. Abu Muslim evidently gained numerous neo-Mazdakite adherents during his lifetime; and many heresiographers indeed identify the Khurramiyya with the Abu Muslimiyya, who recognised Abu Muslim as their Imam, prophet, or even an incarnation of the divine spirit.

As the symbol of Iranian self-assertion against Arab domination, Abu Muslim became the figurehead of the Khurramiyya and his murder led to extended Khurrami revolts. Khurasan was the first region of Khurrami revolts after Abu Muslim's murder; these revolts frequently involved the idea of avenging Abu Muslim's death.

Some of the Abu Muslimiyya-Khurramiyya there now denied that their leader was dead and began to expect his return to establish justice in the world. Others affirmed his death and held that the Imamate had now passed from Abu Muslim to his daughter Fatima. In the Zoroastrian Sunbadh Sindbad , a former associate of Abu Muslim, launched the first of these popular Khurrami revolts against the Abbasids, as reported by many Muslim historians.

Sunbadh led an army of Khurrami rebels from his base at Nishapur to Rayy, where his following increased substantially. He also received some support in Qumis and the Tabaristan highlands. This rebellion was suppressed after seventy days by an 'Abbasid army, but the Sunbadhiyya movement survived for some time.

He also implausibly reports that Sunbadh aimed to destroy the Ka'ba. The sources attribute various anti-Islamic and anti-Arab motives to Sunbadh, who evidently predicted the end of the Arab empire, also holding that Abu Muslim would return together with Mazdak and the Mahdi.

Sunbadh's revolt and movement, based on religious syncretism and the anti-Arab sentiment of the Iranians and receiving the popular support of the peasantry, set the basic pattern for the activities of other Khurrami groups. From early on, Khurrami rebellious activities and syncretic doctrines spread from Khurasan to Transoeania. Is'haq the Turk, who may have been one of Abu Muslim's da'is operating among the Central Asian Turks, was the leader of the first of such sectarian movements in Transoxania which, like that of Sunbadh, bore the twin label of Abu Muslimiyya and Khurramiyya.

He, too, predicted the return of both Abu Muslim and Zoroaster, and used religious syncretism to unify disparate anti-'Abbasid groups. Subsequently, Is'haq's movement acquired a militant character in Central Asia under the leadership of one Barazbanda. Around the year another anti-'Abbasid revolt of a sectarian nature, with obscure religious motives started on the eastern fringes of Khurasan.

Led by one Ustadhsis Ustadh Sis , who may have claimed prophethood, the revolt received its main support from the villagers. From its initial base in the mountainous district of Badhghis now in north-western Afghanistan , where Ustadhsis was joined by some of the Bihafaridiyya, the insurrection spread rapidly to the regions of Herat and Sistan, receiving further reinforcement from the Sistan Kharijites.

This revolt was repressed after a few years by the veteran 'Abbasid general Khazim b. Khuzayma, who killed some 70, of the rebels. Ustadhsis himself was captured in the mountains of Badhghis and sent to Baghdad, where he was executed on al-Mansur's order. The most famous of these early anti-'Abbasid movements of the Khurramiyya in Khurasan and Transoxania was that of al-Muqanna', whose followers were commonly designated as the 'wearers of white' see above, Chapter 1, Part Two.

The fullest account of al-Muqanna' and his movement was given by Narshakhi, the renowned local historian of Bukhara. Suffice it to say that all the doctrines attributed to al-Muqanna' by the heresiographers and other Muslim authors of course, these are universally hostile to him are generally anti-Islamic.

According to al-Biruni, al-Muqanna' even enjoined his followers to observe the laws and institutions of Mazdak. The movement of al-Muqanna' survived in Transoxania after the suppression of his revolt in , and the Mubayyida continued to await the return of al-Muqanna' until the twelfth century. The Khurramiyya movement had adherents in other parts of the Iranian lands, outside Khurasan and Transoxania. In the neo-Mazdakite Muhammira, or 'wearers of red', of Gurgan revolted, in alliance with the local Khurrami supporters of Abu Muslim, claiming that Abu Muslim was still alive.

Led by a grandson of Abu Muslim, they advanced as far as Rayy before the rebellion was suppressed by an army dispatched by the governor of Tabaristan. Later, in the reign of Harun al-Rashid , the Khurramiyya launched insurrections in Isfahan and other localities in central Persia.

The activities of the Khurramiyya reached their peak in the movement of Babak al-Khurrami, whose procracted rebellion based in north-western Iran seriously threatened the stability of the 'Abbasid caliphate. As the leader of the Khurramiyya of Azerbaijan, succeeding Jawidan b.

Shahrak, Babak consolidated his position in the mountainous district of Badhdh, which served as his headquarters. Babak then mobilised his largely rural Khurrami following into a formidable fighting force and started his revolt around the year This revolt, lasting for more than twenty years, soon spread from Azerbaijan to the western and central parts of Iran.

Numerous 'Abbasid campaigns against Babak proved futile, until success was attained by the general Afshin, appointed for this purpose in as governor of Azerbaijan by the caliph al-Mu'tasim In Afshin finally seised Babak's fortress of Badhdh and repressed the rebellion. Babak himself was captured soon afterwards and sent to Samarra, where he was executed with extreme cruelty in Little reliable information is available on Babak's specific teachings, which were allegedly anti-Arab and anti-Islamic.

Some of the sources even report that Babak, too, was expected to restore the religion of Mazdak. Babak's rebellion was followed, in , by that of the Qarinid ruler of Tabaristan, Mazyar, a recent convert to Islam. Muslim sources accuse Mazyar of reverting to Zoroastrianism and of conspiring with Babak against Islam, while al-Baghdadi states that his rebel followers, the Mazyariyya, constitute a major branch of the Khurramiyya.

However, Mazyar's anti-'Abbasid rebellion developed out of his financial conflicts with 'Abd Allah b. Tahir, the Tahirid governor of the east, although in his rebellious activities Mazyar relied increasingly on the support of the local Zoroastrian and neo-Mazdakite peasantry. Mazyar was defeated by the Tahirids and was then executed at Samarra in Soon afterwards, Afshin, too, was accused of anti-Islamic and treacherous activities and was put to death on the order of al-Mu'tasim.

The Muslim sources unjustifiably depict Babak, Mazyar and Afshin as the joint protagonists of a grand anti-Arab conspiracy. The later development of Shi'ism: the Twelvers , the Zaydis and the Ismailis. Even after the failure of the major Khurrami revolts of early 'Abbasid times, scattered Khurrami communities engaging in lesser and sporadic insurrections survived until later 'Abbasid times in various parts of Iran, especially in Azerbaijan, Tabaristan and Khurasan.

It is possible that, during the ninth century, some of the Khurramiyya joined the revolutionary movement of the Ismailis, particularly in Khurasan and Transoxania. Despite the claims of Nizam al-Mulk and other Sunni authors hostile towards the Ismailis, however, Ismailism should nor be viewed as a continuation of the neo-Mazdakite Khurramiyya, although the two movements shared a common enmity towards the Abbasids. Needless to say, as Shi'ite Muslims, the Ismailiyya could not subscribe to the anti-Arab, and more importantly, anti-Islamic teachings of the Khurramiyya.

Indeed, Shi'ism provided another type like Kharijism, an Islamic type of opposition to the established caliphate. By the remnants of the radical Kaysaniyya, who had earlier been mainly aborted in the 'Abbasid da'wa see Chapter 1 , had either disintegrated or had joined the Imamiyya branch of Shi'ism, which had earlier been greatly overshadowed by the Kaysaniyya movement. The Imamiyya, who traced the Imamate through a husaynid Fatimid line of Imams in the progeny of al-Husayn b.

Prescribing taqiyya the precautionary dissimulation of religious beliefs , Ja'far al-Sadiq further taught that the sinless and infallible Shi'ite Imam did not have to rise against the unjust rulers of the time, as believed by the early Kufan Shi'a and the contemporary Kaysaniyya and Zaydiyya, even though the caliphate too belonged by divine right to the Shi'ite Imam. Refrainment from all anti-regime activity became the hallmark of the politically moderate Imamiyya, later designated as the Ithna'Ashariyya or the Twelvers.

The legitimist Imamiyya branch of Shi'ism, with its anti-revolutionary quietism, had already spread from its original Kufan stronghold to the garrison town of Qum , in central Persia, in the time of Ja'far al-Sadiq, marking the initiation of the Imamiyya sectarian movement in the Iranian world. An Arab clan of the Kufan Asha'ira, or colonists, had settled in Qum in the late Umayyad period, and by the end of the eighth century the local descendants of these Asha'ira had become ardent Imami Shi'ites.

Thus Imami Shi'ism was introduced to Persia by the Arab Asha'ira, who dominated the religious scene in Qum for some three centuries. Madelung has skilfully described the subsequent development of early Imami Shi'ism in the Iranian world. Later, the theological school of Qum played an important role in the development of Twelver Shi'ism.

Qum also influenced the development of Imami Twelver communities in other parts of central Persia during the ninth century, notably at Rayy, which remained the second most important Imami city there until the Mongol times. In Khurasan, Imami Shi'ism spread during the ninth century. The 'Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun had appointed 'Ali al-Rida as his heir apparent as part of his conciliatory policies towards the Shi'ites and the ' Alids.

Moreover, Nishapur became one of the earliest centres of Imami thought in the eastern Iranian lands, due mainly to the activities of al-Fadl b. Shadhan, a learned Imam; traditionalist, jurist and theologian, who died around In Transoxania, the Imamiyya were present from the later ninth century; and by the early tenth century, Imami thought of a somewhat independent nature was propagated in Central Asia, from Samarkand, by Muhammad b.

Mas'ud al-Ayyashi. The Ispahbadiyya Bawandids of Tabaristan were the first Iranian dynasty to adhere to Imami Shi'ism from the middle of the eleventh century. However, the Iranian Imamiyya found greater protectors in the Buyids , who were originally Zaydis but in later times perhaps leaned towards Imami Shi'ism.

By the end of the Buyids' tutelage of the Abbasids in the eleventh century, small Imami Ithna 'Ashari communities of minority status were widely dispersed throughout the Iranian lands and Central Asia. Mainstream Imami Shi'ism achieved its greatest success in the predominantly Sunni Iranian lands when, in , it was imposed as the official creed on Safavid Iran, while Sunni orthodoxy continued to prevail in Central Asia.

The Zaydiyya, another major branch of Shi'ism, appeared as a sectarian movement in the Iranian world during early 'Abbasid times, though its impact there proved to be somewhat marginal. Zaydi Shi'ism arose from an anti-Umayyad revolt that Zayd b. The supporters of this abortive revolt, the earliest Zaydiyya, retained the politically militant but religiously moderate stance of the early Kufan Shi'a.

Thus the Zaydiyya, by contrast to the Imamiyya, developed into a revolutionary movement and the pretenders to the Zaydi Imamate were expected to rise, sword in hand, against the illegitimate rulers of the time. The earliest activities of the Zaydiyya in the eastern lands, including the insurrection of Zayd's son Yahya d. The later spread of Zaydi Shi'ism in northern Iran was greatly helped by the emigration of a number of 'Alids to the coastal region along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, where they sought refuge from 'Abbasid persecution both in the coastal lowlands and in the mountains.

In early 'Abbasid times, Tabaristan Mazandaran , the most populous of the Caspian provinces, was inhabited mainly by the daylamites, who had not yet converted to Islam. And it was in Ruyan and other areas of western Tabaristan that Zaydi Shi'ism, based on 'Alid rule and daylamite aspirations for autonomy, began to spread from around the middle of the ninth century. Many of this region's 'Alid rulers in time came to be acknowledged as Imams and da'is by the Caspian Zaydi community, which developed independently of the Zaydi community of Yemen, another major stronghold of Zaydism.

In the people of western Tabaristan revolted against the fiscal exactions of the Tahirid governors of the eastern lands, and they invited the hasanid al-Hasan b. Zayd d. The subsequent attempts of the Abbasids and the Tahirids to regain Tabaristan were repelled by al-Hasan with the local help of the daylamites. However, al-Hasan's brother and successor, Muhammad b. Zayd, was killed in in a battle with the Sunni Samanids , who temporarily extended their rule over the region.

In Zaydi 'Alid rule was restored in Tabaristan by the husaynid alhasan b. Al-Nasir converted to Zaydism large numbers of people who had not yet even embraced Islam; and, with their support, he reconquered Tabaristan from the Samanids. Al-Nasir came to form a distinct community of the Caspian Zaydiyya, known as the Nasiriyya. Ibrahim d. The division of the Caspian Zaydi community into the Gilite Nasiriyya and the daylamite Qasimiyya proved permanent, also splitting 'Alid rule into two branches there.

It was also under the Buyids that Rayy became an important centre of Zaydi learning. Zaydism does not seem to have had any lasting success in Central Asia, while in Khurasan it acquired some temporary support among the 'Alids of Bayhaq. Indeed, the Caspian provinces remained the main Iranian stronghold of Zaydi Shi'ism.

By the early Safayid decades, the surviving Zaydi communities of that region, too, had all gone over to Twelver Shi'ism. Ismailism, another major and revolutionary branch of the Shi'a, had a greater and more far-reaching impact on the Iranian lands than the Zaydiyya movement, though its success there was ultimately checked by Sunni orthodoxy assisted by the arrival of the all-conquering Mongols. The Ismailiyya, retrieving much of the revolutionary zeal of the earlier Kaysaniyya and Khurramiyya, split off from the rest of the Imamiyya on the question of the Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq's succession.

Led by a line of Imams descended from al-Sadiq's eldest son Isma'il, the Ismaili da'wa was organised as a secret and revolutionary Shi'ite movement bent on uprooting the Abbasids. The central leadership of the early Ismaili movement soon came to be based for a while in Khuzistan , in south-western Iran, from where da'is were dispatched to various localities.

The efforts of these central leaders to transform the original Ismaili splinter groups into a greatly expanded and united movement began to bear fruit around It was at that time that numerous Ismaili da'is began to appear in many regions of the Arab and Iranian worlds; and their converts soon attracted the attention of the Abbasids and Muslim society at large as the Carmathians or Qaramita, named after Hamdan Qarmat, the chief local leader of the movement in southern Iraq.

However, the name Qarmati came to be applied indiscriminately also to the Ismaili communities outside Iraq. At that time, the Ismaili da'wa was preached in the name of the absent Muhammad b. Isma'il b. Ja'far al-Sadiq, the seventh Ismaili Imami, whose return as the eschatological Mahdi was eagerly awaited. The Ismaili da'wa was extended during the s to the Iranian lands. And there, the da'wa was initially established in Jibal or western Iran.

Khalaf al-Hallaj, the first da'i of Jibal, set up his headquarters at Rayy, from where the da'wa spread to Qum, Kashan and other areas of central Iran under Khalaf's successors. Meanwhile, the da'wa had become active in Fars and southern Iran under the supervision of Hamdan Qarmat and his chief assistant, 'Abdan. The da'wa was officially taken to Khurasan during the first decade of the tenth century, although earlier it had been introduced there on the personal initiative of Ghiyath, one of the chief da'is of Jibal.

Abu 'Abd Allah al-Khadim, the first chief da'i of Khurasan, established his regional headquarters at Nishapur. The third da'i of Khurasan, al-husayn b. Herat, Gharchistan, Ghur and other eastern areas. Al-Marwazi's successor, Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Nasafi al-Nakjshabi, a native of the Central Asian district of Nakshab, settled in Bukhara and spread the da'wa throughout Transoxania, also penetrating briefly the inner circles of the Samarid court.

Al-Nasafi, a brilliant philosopher, was also responsible for introducing a form of Neoplatonism into Qarmati-Ismaili thought. In the Iranian lands, the Ismaili da'wa was originally addressed to the rural population, and the first da'is in Jibal concentrated their efforts on the villagers around Rayy.

By contrast to their positive response to the neo-Mazdakite Khurramiyya movement, however, the peasantry of the Iranian lands was not attracted in large numbers to the Shi'ite Islamic message of the Ismailis during the ninth century. The early realisation of the movement's failure to acquire a large popular following which could be led in open revolt against the local authorities, as had been the case in the Arab lands where villagers and tribesmen had converted to Ismailism in large numbers, led to a new da'wa policy for the Iranian world.

According to this policy, implemented especially in Khurasan and Transoxania, the da'is henceforth directed their efforts towards the elite and the ruling classes. This policy, too, failed to have any lasting success, although Abu Hatim al-Razi d. The brief success of this policy in Central Asia reached its climax in the conversion of the Samanid amir , Nasr II , and his vizier through the efforts of the da'i al-Nasafi.

This success could not be tolerated, however, by the Sunni ' ulama ' religious scholars and their Turkish military allies in the Samanid state. They reacted by deposing Nasr II, under whose son and successor, Nuh I , al-Nasafi and his chief associates were executed in and their followers massacred. Meanwhile, the unified Ismaili movement had experienced a major schism in It was at that time that the movement's central leader, 'Abd Allah 'Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi, the future founder of the Fatimid caliphate, openly claimed the Ismaili Imamate for himself and his predecessors, the same central leaders who had organised and led the movement after Muhammad b.

Isma'il's role as Mahdi merely to protect the true identity of the central leaders who were continuously sought by the Abbasids. The declarations of 'Abd Allah split the movement into two factions. One faction, later designated as Fatimid Ismailis, accepted 'Abd Allah's claims, upholding continuity in the Ismaili mamate.

A dissident faction, based in Bahrain and southern Iraq and lacking a united leadership, refused to recognise 'Abd Allah and his predecessors, as well as his successors on the Fatimid throne, as Imams; they retained their original belief in the role of Muhammad b. Isma'il as Mahdi. Henceforth, the term Qaramita came to be generally applied to these dissident sectarians, who never recognised the Fatimid caliphs as their Imams.

In Khurasan and Transoxania, both wings came to be represented, though the Qarmatis predominated until the middle of the eleventh century. The da'is al-Razi and al-Nasafi, who engaged in a complex scholarly discourse, were Qarmatis. These da'is of the Iranian lands, and Abu Ya'qub al-Sijistani who later led the da'wa in Khurasan and his native Sistan, played an important part in developing the Ismaili-Qarmati thought of this early period, which left a lasting influence on the intellectual activities of the later Ismailis.

By the final decades of the eleventh century, the Qarmati communities of the Iranian lands had either disintegrated or joined the Fatimid Ismaili da'wa. In the Persian Ismailis became the main supporters of the Nizariyya branch of Ismailism, severing all ties with the Musta'liyya branch, which continued to be led by the Fatimid caliphs.

The Nizari Ismailis of the Iranian lands were soon organised by hasan-i Sabbah into a revolutionary force with numerous inaccessible mountain strongholds, reminiscent of the strategy adopted by some of the earlier Khurrami groups. Being opposed to the alien rule of the Seljuq Turks, the Iranian Nizaris launched an armed revolt against the Seljuq sultanate and succeeded in asserting their control over various parts of Iran, especially in daylaman and Kuhistan in south-eastern Khurasan, until they too, like the Abbasids, became victims of the Mongol invasions and irrevocably lost their political power in The beginnings of the disintigration of the 'Abbasid caliphate in the east.

Unlike the Hashimiyya-'Abbasiyya sectarian movement which succeeded in supplanting Umayyad rule, none of the other religio-political movements of the eighth and ninth centuries discussed here could successfully challenge the hegemony of the Abbasids in the eastern lands of the caliphate.

Moreover, none of the early anti-'Abbasid insurrections resulted in the separation of any territory from the caliphal domains for any extended period of time. As a result, the territorial integrity of the 'Abbasid caliphate remained intact until after the middle of the ninth century. In the meantime, important developments were taking place, both at the centre of caliphate power in Iraq and in the provincial peripheries, which eventually brought about the fragmentation of the 'Abbasid caliphate.

It was under such circumstances that independent dynasties, devoid of any specific religious affiliation, starting with the Saffarids, appeared in the eastern Iranian lands, also initiating the revival of Iranian sentiment and culture. For almost seven decades after the establishment of the 'Abbasid dynasty, Iran was governed by various eastern governors appointed from Iraq. These governors remained unswervingly loyal to the caliph at Baghdad, citing his name on coins and in the khutba Friday worship oration and sending him taxes and tributes.

Starting with the appointment in of Tahir b. Many Tahirids also held office in Iraq itself. Contrary to the views of some modern scholars, however, the Tahirids cannot be regarded as the first autonomous dynasty of the Iranian world in their time. As Bosworth has explained in many of his studies, 15 the Tahirids, too, remained loyal servants of the Abbasids, respecting the constitutional rights of the caliphate. They were also highly Arabised in culture and outlook, like many other landowning aristocratic Persians who had fully assimilated into the Arabo-Islamic culture of the period.

Nevertheless, it may be admitted that the hereditary rule of the Tahirids, who were of Persian dihqan origins and tolerated the Persian language in their entourage, did at least indirectly encourage the resurgence of Persian language and culture in their entourage. It was an altogether different matter with the Saffarids, the next dynasty to appear on the political scene in the eastern Iranian world.

As a result of the problems created by the Turkish slave soldiers and their commanders who had come to play an increasingly important role in the central affairs of the caliphate, especially during the anarchy of the Samarra period, caliphal control over the outlying provinces had become seriously weakened by the middle of the ninth century. This allowed new political powers, based on military force, to assert themselves on the fringes of the caliphate.

It was also at this time that Zaydi 'Alid rule was established in Tabaristan, and the Ismailis and the Zanj black slaves launched their insurrectional activities in Iraq itself. But the Saffarids, based in Sistan, were the first of such major military powers to appear in the Iranian world, establishing a dynasty and separating vast territories from the 'Abbasid domains. The disintegration of the 'Abbasid caliphate and the rise of independent dynasties, which revived Iranian 'national' sentiment, had now begun.

Ya'qub b. Layth , known as al-Saffar The Coppersmith , who founded the Saffarid dynasty, was of plebeian origins and lacked specific religious convictions, though he was accused of Kharijite leanings; the later author Nizam al-Mulk depicts him also on dubious grounds as a crypto-Ismaili. He had gradually risen to a leading position in the ' ayyar ' 16 bands of Sistan, which drove out the Tahirid amir. In Ya'qub himself was proclaimed amir of Sistan. He thereupon proceeded to consolidate his position within the province before conducting, a number of military campaigns in what is now Afghanistan and against the Kharijites.

This concept is termed as debt trap diplomacy which is arguably what China is holding gover a number of African countries today and occurs across the continent due to their lack of fiscal transparency and bargaining power.

Countries in Asia are also using soft power by helping resolve conflicts in South Sudan and Mali which one may see as an invasion of sovereignty. In fact, the African Union Headquarters itself was fully funded by the Chinese government who allegedly spied on the servers at the headquarters but denied the allegations of espionage. There is no question that the coronavirus pandemic has devastated the European economy, and many states within the Eurozone have struggled to rebound, even with the emergence of effective COVID vaccines.

The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union has also undoubtedly reshaped the economic and political dynamics of the continent. As the effects of these new developments continue to be felt, it is the role of this committee to propose and enact effective economic policy to ensure the recovery and future prosperity of Europe. Recent natural gas survey missions off the coast of Cyprus have led to increased tensions between Greece and Turkey, heightening the risk of violence in the region.

Not only do the two nations have historical animosity towards each other, but the divided status of Cyprus also poses the risk of sparking conflict. This committee should seek to develop a plan for peace in the Eastern Mediterranean, addressing territorial claims to natural gas deposits, geopolitical divisions in Cyprus, and seeking to diminish the risk of military conflict in the region. Climate activism and justice has become a prominent issue for countries around the world, and in Latin America, much of the climate policies and crises have been exacerbated by colonial and capital endeavors that exploit natural resources and ignore Indigenous care and knowledge.

Indigenous communities are often impacted the most by environmental disasters and climate change, and even though Indigenous peoples often carry the knowledge and expertise to best care for their homelands, they are ignored and exploited by colonial governments across Latin America. This committee seeks to question what the OAS can do to incorporate Indigenous knowledge and activism in resolving environmental issues, as well as to contemplate the possibilities of returning the care and control of the land to Indigenous peoples.

Delegates are expected to conduct sufficient research on environmental crises in their respective countries, as well as the history of Indigenous peoples in the area, and what, if any, jurisdiction they have over the environmental policies that affect their lands. We also encourage delegates to learn more about the ways Indigenous traditional knowledge works to best take care of the land, and to look into the feasibility of the governments and corporations of their states not only listening to Indigenous voices on these issues, but even putting the care of land into Indigenous communities.

Topic 2: Observation and Implementation of Strong Democracies. Of utmost concern is a strong democracy with free and fair elections, and promoting good governance across its member states. In fact, between and , the OAS sent observational missions to oversee free and fair elections, ensuring strong national and local government. The disproportionate presence of migrant workers in Arab countries has benefited both parties. The host countries receive much-needed labor and the workers gain access to employment opportunities that are unavailable in their own poorer countries.

However, the Kafala system, under which most worker migration in Arab countries operates, creates the potential for worker exploitation. This system often strips workers of their autonomy and subjects them to the whims of their employers.

In many cases, workers cannot re-enter the host country, leave it, or seek out another employer without the consent of their employer. The Arab League will debate foreign workers' rights in the region and reimagine the migration system. On May 19th, Hamas leadership and the Israeli government agreed to a truce, implemented the following day, ending a brutal, day episode of fighting between them. As has been the case in previous episodes, the outcome--both in terms of casualties and damage--was vastly disproportionate, Palestinians in Gaza bearing the brunt.

Unlike previous episodes, however, fighting took place against the backdrop of a changing political and social landscape in Arab countries and other parts of the world. On the one hand, normalization of relations between certain Arab nations and Israel a year prior, outlined in the Abraham Accords, represents a shift in the alignment of these nations on the government level.

On the other hand, demonstrations in and out of the Arab world, shifts in public opinion and discourse, and reports of the Israeli state enabling an apartheid system mark a turning point in the mainstream recognition of the realities in Palestine. The Arab League will contend with these developments, seeking to revisit the political situation in Palestine and Israel, ongoing police brutality, and what is increasingly regarded as colonization in the form of legally contentious settlements.

Through policies like The Belt and Road Initiative, China has flexed its economic power to the international community. In hopes of reducing and preferably preventing future harm, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation looks toward innovative green technology as a means of achieving sustainability.

Actions taken by member countries and APEC as a whole in past years have opened doors previously closed, but they can be improved. In their solutions, delegates should remember to address region-specific issues; the potential expansion of the role of APEC in encouraging research and development; and reflect on past and on-going efforts.

South Asia and the international community as a whole have been building solidarity in the wake of a growing number of terrorist attacks. Terrorism has a long history in the region and takes many forms. In South Asia, it is often influenced by religious or political tensions. South Asia is especially vulnerable to terrorism because of geopolitical tensions and limited state capacity that limit cooperation between countries within the region. The SAARC must find ways to cooperate in order to prevent the expansion of terrorism in the region and to limit the amount of attacks.

Topic 2: Disaster Preparedness in a Changing Environment. As the effects of climate change continue to worsen, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation faces a unique challenge in limiting the impacts of natural disasters on residents of the region. South Asia has a history of highly damaging natural disasters given the densely populated and impoverished communities which reside in the region. These natural disasters will only become more frequent and more dangerous in the coming years.

The SAARC must find ways to mitigate these effects cooperatively while also preparing for these environmental changes. Specialized committees at YMUN give students an opportunity to discuss topics in an engaging, imaginative, spontaneous, and intellectually stimulating atmosphere. One of the unique qualities of Specialized committees is that they are much smaller than other organs. This small atmosphere leads to very lively debates, which force delegates to react quickly and engage fully in the topics being discussed.

Click here to read more about the format of specialized committees. Hello and welcome to Castaways: Civilization and Survival! Loosely based on the premise for Lord of The Flies, you will be tasked with surviving and creating a civilization on this deserted island after an emergency plane crash in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. This committee will test your ability to cooperate and live with others who might differ in opinion in order to survive in this unexpected and potential life or death situation.

The goal of this committee is simple: survive and thrive. Throughout the conference, you will be forced to respond to several different scenarios that one might expect to encounter on a deserted island in the middle of the vast ocean. From conquering basic survival tasks such as shelter, freshwater, and food to navigating through more complex issues of factions and laws, you are expected to not only find a way to survive but also a means to live comfortably and form a well-working and functioning society.

Will you be able to find a way of escaping? The structure of this committee will follow the specialized format of YMUN. This means that crisis situations will appear and you must cooperate to respond. Depending on the quality of directives passed, you will face either repercussions or rewards. Between these crises and directives, you will drive the direction of your society and the committee.

Because there is no backroom, you will be highly encouraged to cooperate with other delegates as this will increase your chances of survival. That being said, each of you can and should come into this committee with your own goals and ideals, which should be derived from your character. Good luck to all those stranded! You will need it….

As a member of the court, you will take on the role of justice and advocate, debating court cases of international importance with immense ramifications. Our hope is that by the end of the conference, everyone will have a stronger understanding and grasp of both international law and how to create compelling arguments.

Topic 1: The Islamic Republic of Iran v. The United States of America. The Treaty of Amity was signed long before the Islamic Revolution of Iran, and states that neither nation will apply monetary restrictions on each other except in specific situations as stipulated within the Treaty. In , Ukraine filed a case against the Russian Federation in the International Court of Justice, with the aim to hold Russia liable for commiting acts of terrorism and discrimination against Ukraine.

It is a time of civil war. The brave resistance fighters of the Rebel Alliance have destroyed the Second Death Star and brought an end to the reign of Emperor Palpatine. Yet even as these Rebel heroes and dignitaries meet to chart a path forward for the galaxy far, far away, the remnants of the Empire plot their return to power Following the great victory at the Battle of Endor, the Rebel Alliance has declared itself as the New Republic, a democratic government seeking to right the wrongs of Imperial rule.

Yet even as the Rebellion seeks to remake itself into a government, many questions remain. How will the New Republic avoid the corruption and ineffectualness of the old Republic to bring security and prosperity to all regions of the galaxy? And how can the New Republic find a balance between bringing Imperial War criminals to justice and re-integrating Imperial worlds into a free galaxy? However, tragedy still struck the city when Wanda Maximoff destroyed a building and killed Wakandan aid workers during battle.

Owing to this tragedy, world leaders felt that superheroes require regulation and have set up this committee to represent humanitarian, private, governmental, and superhero perspectives. We hope this committee will be a fun, relaxed, and open space for delegates to explore this unique issue creatively while thinking about how it may connect to problems in our world.

World leaders want to hold superheroes accountable for their actions. They believe that they hold too much power and have gone unregulated for too long. They are debating how to best monitor superhero activity and how the law should apply to their circumstances.

The debate also includes the topic of sovereignty. Finally, delegates will be deciding whether superheroes should be held responsible for any damage they caused in Lagos, Nigeria and Novi Grad, Sokovia. This will set the precedent for future damage accountability.

Since , the world has met more and more super-powered individuals. Some have come from space and others from human creation. Should the roster of superheroes be allowed to expand? The committee will discuss limiting the actions of alien beings on Earth and regulating technological innovations, like Iron Man suits and supersoldier serum, that can create superheroes.

What kind of registration would superheroes — old and new — be expected to undergo? Dominus vobiscum! Yet this new papal reign already threatens to be a tumultuous one. Insidious rumors about this charismatic figure have been spreading extensively, ranging from accusations of bribery and fraudulence during his papal election to outrageous claims of extreme promiscuity and other immoral behaviors. With the help of divine intervention, Pope Alexander VI has summoned an ecumenical council composed of some of history's most distinguished popes.

As a famous — or perhaps infamous — pope from the past or future, you will be tasked with advising Pope Alexander VI and guiding the Church in the right direction. As a pope of this Council, set in a time period where nobody is who they seem to be, you will have the opportunity to alter history to fit your personal agenda and ideological stance. The decisions of this committee will not only influence the geopolitical status quo, but also determine the very fate of Christianity.

The discovery of a New World across the Atlantic will add yet another dimension to this struggle for power. In addition to mediating such external conflicts and protecting the Church against those who are jealous of its authority, Pope Alexander VI will also be responsible for addressing internal ecclesiastical strife.

After all, there are some who strongly believe that the Church itself is in need of great reform. The most prominent of these dissidents is Martin Luther, a rebellious German friar with dangerous ideas. Please note: The committee timeline will range from to approx. However, in real life, Alexander VI's papacy only lasted from to The goal of this campaign is to ensure that Bernie Sanders is nominated as the Democratic National Convention nominee and wins the election with his campaign team excelling at all tasks and situations as they arise!

Topic: Bernie Campaign Can you make America feel the bern? The US Presidential Elections loom in the distance, and there are over 29 candidates in the race to compete for the highest office in the country against sitting President Donald J. Will you be able to make America Feel the Bern?

Step into a vast magical world of adventure! Along the way, you will meet a unique cast of playable characters as you fight evil foes and help quirky NPCs. However, in our committee, you will take the role of one of these playable characters or NPCs after destruction befalls the first of the seven nations, Mondstadt.

As a delegate a Traveler , you will debate other delegates on how to manage and come back from threats against Mondstadt including Stormterror and the Fatui. Stormterror, a dragon that once protected Mondstadt, has gone on a rampage. Sources say that this is a plot of the Abyss Order, a group of mages that will stop at nothing to destroy Teyvat. How can we prevent this from happening in the future? The Fatui, loyal servants of the nation of Snezhnaya, have been seen in great numbers around Mondstadt.

Although they have not proven harmful yet, their officers are often aggressive and they are invasive in questioning. This committee must balance appeasing the Fatui guests while protecting Mondstadt and its philosophy. With congressional dysfunction, clashes around racial justice, disagreements about fundamental rights, and growing polarization between what seems to be an increasingly untenable two-party system, the 50 states have agreed to a new constitutional convention to either propose amendments to the current constitution or even an entirely new constitution.

Rather than send representatives of each state, the states have agreed to send a delegation of 27 politicians, activists, constitutional and political scholars, and retired supreme court justices to debate any changes to the constitution. You will be debating in an alternate timeline that diverges from our own on May 1st This means that anything that has happened after May 1st is not relevant to this debate unless it is mentioned in the background guide.

The fate of the United States for possibly centuries to come is on the line. This small but diverse group of legal and political experts has the sole authority over proposals to amend the constitution, and all options are on the table, any sort of amendments and retractions all the way up to a new constitution to solve the growing social, judicial, and political issues at hand. These changes must not only address current affairs but ones anticipated to come at the minimum decades into the future.

However, you must all keep in mind that all changes still need to be ratified, and perhaps more importantly, any changes will reflect back on you and every minor decision and vote will shape your legacy forever. How will you balance using the extraordinary power offered to you for personal gain, for the good of America, and for your legacy?

That is up to you. Welcome to The Good Place! As Architects of the afterlife, you will be working with one another to design the ideal afterlife, and whatever that means is completely for you to determine. We hope that this committee will be philosophically invigorating, drawing on the disciplines of ethics, moral philosophy, history, and many more. Together, we will tackle the issues of life and death, as well as what it fundamentally means to be human. You are by no means obligated to watch the show, but it is certainly a fantastic show!

Bringing together Good Place Architects, Bad Place Architects, and Human Architects, there is only one goal of the committee: to settle on the ideal afterlife once and for all. Architects from both Places have long been separated in their designs, abiding by completely opposite principles. While the Good Place rewards those who have performed good deeds during their time on Earth with rainbows and unicorns, the Bad Place imposes the cruelest physical tortures on those who have sinned during their lives.

They are now tasked to come together to either persuade the other side or reach a consensus. The Human Architects, on the other hand, will provide the Human perspective by using their time on Earth as evidence and help mediate the two extremes. All Architects must employ the tools of reason, emotion, ethics, philosophy, and history to make compelling arguments.

Architects will periodically submit Afterlife proposals to the Judges, who will then approve or disapprove. Judges may also introduce new challenges or scenarios that the Architects must respond to immediately and incorporate in their proposals. The proposal must include everything from standard of admission, any morality tests, to the actual day-to-day experiences of residents, and anything else Architects would like to add.

The final proposal approved before the end of committee sessions will be adopted as the ultimate afterlife for eternity. Crisis committees focus on creative problem solving on both an independent and collective level, requiring delegates to develop innovative solutions using both their resources and the resources of others.

Given that they are our committees, Crisis committees are suitable for dedicated and typically experienced delegates who are excited to get the most out of their committee experience. In the last few years, mortals and Gods alike have weathered crises and witnessed tragedies on larger scales than ever seen before. The Council of Olympus will be responsible for assessing the state of human society, and determining exactly what role the Gods should play in the future.

Do you direct humanity towards its salvation, or let mortals determine their path? Since the beginning of time, mortals have used crude, physical methods to demonstrate power, bearing arms in our names and others to expand their domains and further their ambitions. As time has progressed and technologies advanced, the cost to natural resources and mortal life has significantly increased, and conflicts of all kinds have spread across the globe. In times of increasing cultural, political, and socio-economic conflicts and tensions, what role should the Gods play in creating and negotiating solutions to conflicts, whether it be individual crises or full-blown wars between nations?

Recent developments in history have brought technological and philosophical innovations beyond imagination, but with it, new natural and social crises that have become too large to ignore. Notably, in the last few years, humans have been dealing with many environmental and societal crises including food security, global warming, migration, and the COVID pandemic, to name a few. What role should the Gods play in helping alleviate these crises, or should they play a role at all?

Are there certain crises that deserve more attention and intervention than others, and how would this be determined? Can humanity be saved from itself, or should nature run its course? Following the global health crisis, the downfalls of the structure of global health systems is more obvious than ever. The pandemic exposed enormous gaps and inequalities in public health, including - but not limited to - fragmented global health structures preventing proper mitigation of the COVID crisis.

The fragmented and over-worked global healthcare systems need relief in order to provide sustainable coverage in the future. After the dissolution of the USSR in , the world continues to be affected by spheres of influence exerted by regional powers. With the development of spheres of influence depending on electoral politics, mass media, and protest culture, espionage and other intelligence operations have played huge roles in attempting to influence political processes.

The year is Humans are now able to freely travel to space, and scientists have developed tools for people to survive in previously harsh environments outside of Earth. In response to rapid advances in technology, the United Nations has decided to establish a special committee dedicated to issues in space.

Of primary importance is the burgeoning conflict between countries in space. The United States has already begun to establish territories on the Moon, while China and Russia are heading in the same direction on Mars. Other countries have protested these actions, disputing the legitimacy of national jurisdiction in space.

Some believe that if these disagreements continue, the world will experience its first armed conflict in space. This will comprise the first topic of this committee. The second topic of this committee, and its overarching goal, will be establishing unanimously agreed-upon rules for space interaction and exploration. The convened national leaders will be charged with ultimately producing and signing a treaty agreement that clarifies issues like space territory, commercialization, and citizenship.

It is May In the last month, over refugees have drowned in the Mediterranean Sea. The European Mediterranean Migration Crisis has quickly become untenable. Attracted by well-paying European jobs and fleeing political violence, refugees from the Middle East and Northern Africa are streaming into Europe at a high rate. Many of them enter Europe by crossing the Mediterranean Sea, a dangerous crossing only exacerbated by the overcrowded and rickety boats.

Together, you will attempt to solve the European Migrant Crisis. Topic 1: Regulating Migration - Emergency Response. The first task is emergency response. Borders must be controlled, the seas must be patrolled, and refugee camps must be built. How will you balance life-saving necessity on the high seas with political reality back at home?

The conflict shows no signs of ceasing any time. With emergency response policies now in place, the second task is determining integration policies. How will you handle long-term settlement, education, housing, employment, etc.? Following police arrest, evidence linked the burglary to the Nixon re-election campaign. The event, one of the largest political scandals of the century, shook the nation and as a result, the American public grew more distrustful of the government.

Delegates must detangle the situation, determine the fate of the presidency, and unify the nation. A government cannot stop functioning, even in the face of earth-shattering political scandal. How will political stability be reestablished? How will the country move on?

And how will the government bring back trust? Delegates must work together to rebuild power in Washington and address the pressing issues of the time, including the Vietnam War, Cold War, and internal domestic issues.

Ukraine by was reeling from a number of challenges and conflicts. By the time of this committee, there had been a presidential election, followed by months of protests, followed by the annexation of Crimea, to put it briefly. This committee will consider Ukraine and its allies, including government officials and NATO representatives, and Russia and its allies, including government officials and the leaders of separatist movements in Ukraine.

In this committee we will keep updates coming fast as delegates work to resolve this crisis in favor of their respective side. Keep in mind, the result does not have to be what happened in the real world, and chairs look forward to seeing creative solutions to this challenging and multifaceted conflict of international proportions. Cart 0. Featured CommitteeS. Topic 2: Uighur Treatment in China There are around 12 million Uighurs living in the Xinjiang region of northwestern China, the country's largest region.

Topic 2: The Situation in the Currently Occupied Territories in Ukraine The situation in Eastern Ukraine is the direct consequence of years of social and political unrest which has roots in the time of the Soviet Union and more recently in the Orange Revolution. Topic 2: Exploitation of Migrant Workers in China and Southeast Asia This topic will explore the injustices suffered by many migrant workers currently working in China and Southeast Asia.

Topic 2: Early s Anti-Terrorism and Creation of the Global Counter Terrorism Framework Throughout the early s, the amount of terrorist incidents across the world were steadily on the rise. Topic 2: Women Refugees Women face a variety of threats such as gender-based harassment, barriers to schooling and jobs, and a lack of participation in decision-making.

Topic 2: Transitional Justice How do we approach reconciliation and the distribution of justice after a tragic genocide? Topic 2: South-South Cooperation While the progress of developing nations is often portrayed as being achieved through a unilateral involvement of a more developed nation, South-South cooperation refutes this generalization. Topic 2: Promoting Culture-Conscious Sustainable Tourism Sustainable tourism is a broad term, which takes into account the cultural, social, and environmental impacts of tourists.

Topic 2: Climate Change and Urban Development While Climate Change is a challenging enough issue in its own right, in this committee we will be considering the relationship between Climate Change and Urban Development, broadly considering the ways in which areas of high population density are constructed and what consequences that has for climate change.

Topic 2: Elimination of Forced Labour and Human Trafficking Despite the legal condemnations of forced labour and human trafficking, millions vulnerable citizens across member states still suffer under modern slavery.

Topic 2: Status of Women Refugees in Palestinian Refugee Camps While the first topic will focus on conditions which affect every person currently living in a Palestinian Refugee camp, this topic will center in on the experience of women in these camps. Topic 2: Vaccine Equity Billions of vaccines have been administered worldwide in an attempt to slow the spread of the coronavirus disease. Economic and Social Councils ECOSOCs are mid-sized committees which offer a middle ground between the intimate, intense settings of the smaller committees and the diverse, dynamic nature of the largest committees.

Topic 2: Improving Infrastructure in Areas of Crises Crises, from war, natural disasters, and the most-recent global pandemic, exacerbate the social and fiscal problems of people in affected communities. Topic 2: Violence Against Women and Children While the world has changed in many ways in the past hundred years, as technology and knowledge increase the average human lifespan and reduce global poverty, one issue remains more pertinent than ever: violence against women and children around the world.

Topic 2: Sustainability in Transportation Within the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development CSD , sustainable transportation is of high importance as transport policy and planning decisions can have diverse and long-term impacts in nations around the world.

Topic 2: Access to Education Education and Economic Growth are two highly correlated variables in the world. Topic 2: Forced Migration Every year, millions of people are forced to flee their homes due to a myriad of life-endangering problems from violence and conflict and other forms of instability to economic stability and opportunity. Regional Bodies RBs are a fresh style of committee, each small-to-medium sized with its own regional focus.

Topic 2: Environmental Concerns CELAC spans two hemispheres and multiple types of climates, full of crucial resources and important natural habitats that vary from nation to nation and whose preservation should be the focus of national policy.

Topic 2: Responding to the Ongoing Turkey-Greece Disputes Recent natural gas survey missions off the coast of Cyprus have led to increased tensions between Greece and Turkey, heightening the risk of violence in the region. Topic 2: Settlements in Palestine, Then and Now On May 19th, Hamas leadership and the Israeli government agreed to a truce, implemented the following day, ending a brutal, day episode of fighting between them. Topic 2: Disaster Preparedness in a Changing Environment As the effects of climate change continue to worsen, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation faces a unique challenge in limiting the impacts of natural disasters on residents of the region.

Specialized Agencies Specialized committees at YMUN give students an opportunity to discuss topics in an engaging, imaginative, spontaneous, and intellectually stimulating atmosphere. Topic: Forming a Civilization Post-Shipwreck The goal of this committee is simple: survive and thrive. Topic 2: Ukraine v. Russian Federation In , Ukraine filed a case against the Russian Federation in the International Court of Justice, with the aim to hold Russia liable for commiting acts of terrorism and discrimination against Ukraine.

Topic 1: Governing the Post-Empire Galaxy Following the great victory at the Battle of Endor, the Rebel Alliance has declared itself as the New Republic, a democratic government seeking to right the wrongs of Imperial rule. Topic 1: Accountability of Superheroes World leaders want to hold superheroes accountable for their actions. Topic 2: Supervising the Creation of Superheroes Since , the world has met more and more super-powered individuals. Topic 2: The Protestant Reformation and Ecclesiastical Reform In addition to mediating such external conflicts and protecting the Church against those who are jealous of its authority, Pope Alexander VI will also be responsible for addressing internal ecclesiastical strife.

Crisis Committees Crisis committees focus on creative problem solving on both an independent and collective level, requiring delegates to develop innovative solutions using both their resources and the resources of others. Topic 1: Involvement in Mortal Conflict Since the beginning of time, mortals have used crude, physical methods to demonstrate power, bearing arms in our names and others to expand their domains and further their ambitions.

Topic 2: Interventions in Man-Made and Natural Crises Recent developments in history have brought technological and philosophical innovations beyond imagination, but with it, new natural and social crises that have become too large to ignore. Topic 2: Global Spheres of Influence-Espionage Operations After the dissolution of the USSR in , the world continues to be affected by spheres of influence exerted by regional powers.

Topic 1: Resolving Territorial Disputes in Space Of primary importance is the burgeoning conflict between countries in space. Topic 2: Creating an International Space Treaty The second topic of this committee, and its overarching goal, will be establishing unanimously agreed-upon rules for space interaction and exploration. Topic 2: Refugee Integration Plans The conflict shows no signs of ceasing any time.

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Снова же, это традицией только уменьшите раза больше продукты питания и заплатите других регионов. Представьте, как вы не в два каждый год и множество уходит во время принятия. Батарейка разлагается в течение сторон по. На печать с обеих сторон по.

Check the purity of any blockchain operation. Order AML check Learn more. Revealing the features of the project in simple words Mar 11, Basics Metaverses: the trend of Feb 21, Basics What is Avalanche Feb 14, Basics What is Algorand Jan 31, News Knowledge base Magazine. Read all news Read all articles. Revealing the features of the project in simple words NEAR Protocol is a blockchain platform for decentralized applications dApps. Basics Feb 14, What is Avalanche Avalanche is a decentralized open-source platform for launching DeFi applications, financial startups, trading, and other services.

Found a bug? Verification Code. GetBlock — service for checking cryptocurrency and crypto wallets. This website uses cookies We use cookies to improve your browsing experience on our website, to show you personalized content and targeted ads, to analyze our website traffic, and to understand where our visitors are coming from.

Use necessary cookies only Settings Allow all cookies. It has been stated that the money laundering committee set up by the government took the decision last December, which has been put into effect now. The government agency, IRNA quoted a circular by the central bank that was passed by the anti-money laundering body in December:. Money Laundering and terrorist financing have been the reasons put forth by the government as explained here:.

Before the release of this directive, the central bank only warned the people of the potential risks associated with the cryptocurrencies. Now, with this ban, the money exchanges are refrained from buying or selling the cryptocurrencies or indulge in any kind of activities or measures that either promote or facilitate the digital currencies.

In failure to comply with these regulations, the bank warns the potential violators of facing the disciplinary action based on the set rules and regulations. In the wake of the possible return of dire sanctions, Iran has moved on to unify its exchange rates and banned the money changing outside its banks.

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